Evolution of the Great Lakes

Steven Dutch, Professor Emeritus, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay

Based on maps in Geology and Economic Minerals of Canada, Geological Survey of Canada Economic Geology Report 1, 1970, pp. 714-725, modified from other sources.

White: Ice
Dark blue: Exposed water
Light blue: Present water bodies covered by ice
Yellow: Exposed land in the United States
Pink: Exposed land in Canada
Red: Boundaries
Black: Shorelines
Dark Purple: Marine inundation
Light Purple: Present water bodies inundated by the sea
Lake outlets are shown as thick blue lines with red arrows showing drainage direction

This list shows available maps. Figures are in years before present

14500 14000 13600 13200 12900 12700 12500 12200 12000 11800 11500 11200
10900 10600 10300 10000 09500 09000 08700 08400 08200 08100 07500 06000

An animation of the map series is shown below.

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Created 12 Sept 1997, Last Update 13 September 2018