Steven Dutch, Professor Emeritus, Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay

Vital Statistics

The Climate of Mars

Geology of Mars

The Martian Geological Time Scale

Noachian: 4.6 to about 3.5 to 3.8 billion years ago) Named after Noachis Terra. Heavy cratering but also much evidence of liquid water.

Hesperian: 3.5 to 1.8 billion years ago. Named after Hesperia Planum. Main epoch of volcanic activity, which buried many earlier craters.

Amazonian: From the end of the Hesperian to the present. Named after Amazonis Planitia. Too cold for liquid water at the surface.

Albedo Features on Mars

Below: a map of Martian albedo features compiled from several observers between 1939 and 1941

Life on Mars

The "Canals" of Mars

Schiaparelli's Map of Mars

Percival Lowell's 1896 map of Mars

The Moons of Mars


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Created 20 May 1997, Last Update 11 January 2020